features of mica

The pottery is made from weathered Precambrian mica schist, and has flecks of mica throughout the vessels. Mica sheets are used to provide structure for heating wire (such as in Kanthal or Nichrome) in heating elements and can withstand up to 900 °C (1,650 °F). Rubber mold lubricant accounted for 1.5% of the dry-ground mica used in 2008. It is a type of phyllosilicate, exhibiting a two-dimensional sheet or layer structure. Mica on Albite Specimen Dimensions: 7.4" wide x 6" tall x 4.4" thick Found at the Ouro Fino Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil Price: $162.25 This unique decorator specimen has greenish gold muscovite mica crystals perched on the front and sides of a light brown albite feldspar matrix specimen. characteristics of mica:-. If the X ion is K or Na, the mica is a common mica, whereas if the X ion is Ca, the mica is classed as a brittle mica. However, their price dramatically dropped when large reserves were found and mined in Africa and South America during the early 19th century. This article is about the mineral or gem. The largest mica producer in the world in 2019 was China, producing about 100,000 metric tons of mica. They include: Sericite is the name given to very fine, ragged grains and aggregates of white (colourless) micas. Molding plate is sheet mica from which V-rings are cut and stamped for use in insulating the copper segments from the steel shaft ends of a commutator. Among the principal rock-forming minerals, micas are found in all three major rock varieties—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The coarsely ground mica flakes help prevent the loss of circulation by sealing porous sections of the drill hole. It helps bring in new psychic abilities in a smooth and controllable fashion. The British Geological Survey reported that as of 2005, Koderma district in Jharkhand state in India had the largest deposits of mica in the world. The mica minerals all share the property of perfect basal cleavage, which means that layers of mica can be peeled off of a mica crystal in very thin sheets. Work together with the Indian government and local authorities to build a legal framework and liveable environment for Indian mica communities. Mica was known to ancient Indian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman and Chinese civilizations, as well as the Aztec civilization of the New World.[20]. The general formula for minerals of the mica group is XY2–3Z4O10(OH, F)2 with X = K, Na, Ba, Ca, Cs, (H3O), (NH4); Y = Al, Mg, Fe2+, Li, Cr, Mn, V, Zn; and Z = Si, Al, Fe3+, Be, Ti. Learn more. Some readers feel that Of Mice and Men is so balanced and thoughtful in structure that the novel is a work of art. [11], Ground mica is used in the well-drilling industry as an additive to drilling fluids. Micas are fairly light and relatively soft, and the sheets and flakes of mica are flexible. The most important sources of sheet mica are pegmatite deposits. Phlogopite built-up mica is preferred because it wears at the same rate as the copper segments. Article Shared By. Ground synthetic fluorophlogopite,[32] a fluorine-rich mica, may replace natural ground mica for uses that require thermal and electrical properties of mica. Widely used in cosmetic products such as make-up, cold process soaps, melt & pour soaps, liquid soaps, shampoos, lotions, creams, scrubs, bath salts, bath fizzies, lotion bars and lip … [11], In Madagascar, it is also mined artisanally, in poor working conditions and with the help of child labour. In 2010, the major producers were Russia (100,000 tonnes), Finland (68,000 t), United States (53,000 t), South Korea (50,000 t), France (20,000 t) and Canada (15,000 t). In addition to a major, student's may also choose a Studio Concentration or a Liberal Arts Minor to focus on areas where they have a particular interest. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse (Mus musculus). The rock-forming micas (other than glauconite) can be divided into two groups: those that are light-coloured (muscovite, paragonite, and lepidolite) and those that are dark-coloured (biotite and phlogopite). List some of the important features of Mice & Keyboards All About Mice. [31], Some lightweight aggregates, such as diatomite, perlite, and vermiculite, may be substituted for ground mica when used as filler. The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. Many materials can be substituted for mica in numerous electrical, electronic, and insulation uses. Major products are bonding materials; flexible, heater, molding, and segment plates; mica paper; and tape. Although the micas are generally considered to be monoclinic (pseudohexagonal), there also are hexagonal, orthorhombic, and triclinic forms generally referred to as polytypes. Mica is added to latex balloons to provide a colored shiny surface.[11]. Freshly-cleaved mica surfaces have been used as clean imaging substrates in atomic force microscopy,[13] enabling for example the imaging of bismuth films,[14] plasma glycoproteins,[15] membrane bilayers,[16] and DNA molecules. They are all silicate minerals, known as sheet silicates because they form in distinct layers. Fiber Open Forum Thursday Nov. 19th @ 8pm EST. Mica's value is based on several of its unique physical properties. Clamped mica capacitors are now considered obsolete due to their inferior characteristics. Lepidolite, generally pinkish to lilac in colour, occurs in lithium-bearing pegmatites. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 3 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday. (iv) Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most … Muscovite, the common light-coloured mica, and biotite, which is typically black or nearly so, are the most abundant. In 2008, about 351 t of built-up mica was consumed in the US, mostly for molding plates (19%) and segment plates (42%).[11]. The micas other than glauconite tend to crystallize as short pseudohexagonal prisms. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. A lot of people will tell you that all mica used in cosmetics is lab-made. [19], Human use of mica dates back to prehistoric times. In 2008, mica splittings represented the largest part of the sheet mica industry in the United States. Most biotites are 1M and most muscovites are 2M; however, more than one polytype is commonly present in individual specimens. The earliest use of mica has been found in cave paintings created during the Upper Paleolithic period (40,000 BC to 10,000 BC). Texas State Historical Association - The Handbook of Texas Online - Nacogdoches, Texas, United States, Amethyst Galleries' Mineral Gallery - The Mica Group of Minerals, mica - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The minutely crystalline variety consisting of muscovite or paragonite (or both), generally referred to as sericite, is silky. Powdered mica glitter is used to decorate traditional water clay pots in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh; it is also used on traditional Pueblo pottery, though not restricted to use on water pots in this case. Muscovite and phlogopite splittings can be fabricated into various built-up mica products. Some types of built-up mica have the bonded splittings reinforced with cloth, glass, linen, muslin, plastic, silk, or special paper. Hardness is used to distinguish micas from chloritoid, which also occurs rather commonly as platy masses in some metamorphic rocks; chloritoid, with a Mohs hardness of 61/2, cannot be scratched with a knife blade or geologic pick. After an incident at Mount Yatsuomote a small bell was offered to soothe the kami. Although the deposited film surface is still rough due to deposition kinetics, the back side of the film at the mica-film interface is ultraflat once the film is removed from the substrate. The largest documented single crystal of mica (phlogopite) was found in Lacey Mine, Ontario, Canada; it measured 10 m × 4.3 m × 4.3 m (33 ft × 14 ft × 14 ft) and weighed about 330 tonnes (320 long tons; 360 short tons). The remainder was primarily imported from Madagascar.[11]. Chemical: It is a compound hydrous silicate of aluminum, which also contains iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium fluorine, lithium and … The coating is not absorbed by freshly manufactured roofing because mica's platy structure is unaffected by the acid in asphalt or by weather conditions. Try our corporate solution for free! [11], Dry-ground mica is used in the production of rolled roofing and asphalt shingles, where it serves as a surface coating to prevent sticking of adjacent surfaces. For other uses, see, Structural groups mainly; based on rruff.info/ima, modified, W. A. The rock-forming micas exhibit certain characteristic colours. The commercially important micas are muscovite and phlogopite, which are used in a variety of applications. For graduate programs of study, go here. In some places, certain kinds of field mice are locally common. Coats can be smooth, curly, longhaired, or a combination. Muscovite, the principal mica used by the electrical industry, is used in capacitors that are ideal for high frequency and radio frequency. Critical Essays Structure of the Novel Steinbeck wrote Of Mice and Men in a play format, using a circular pattern of locales, condensed narration, minimal action descriptions, dramatic lighting, and foreshadowing to connect his plot. Mica is translucent and optically flat. Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) is a leader in the world of visual arts featuring undergraduate, graduate, and certificate programs. It displays basal cleavage, which means that it splits along planes parallel to the base. The total global production was 350,000 t, although no reliable data were available for China. Both are incorrect. Tewa Pueblo pottery is made by coating the clay with mica to provide a dense, glittery micaceous finish over the entire object.[11]. Glauconite, which most often occurs as pelletlike grains, has no apparent cleavage. Muscovite, the common light-coloured mica, ... Chemical composition. The most striking structure of Teotihuacan is the towering Pyramid of the Sun. Essentially, mica is a resilient insulation material, … For metallic glitter, Ukiyo-e prints employed very thick solution either with or without color pigments stenciled on hairpins, sword blades or fish scales on carp streamers (鯉のぼり, Koinobori). [11], Wet-ground mica, which retains the brilliance of its cleavage faces, is used primarily in pearlescent paints by the automotive industry. Heater plate is used where high-temperature insulation is required. It is typically used in industrial settings as electrical insulation, and in the production of roofing shingles, wallpaper, paint and plastics. The overall range is from 2.76 for muscovite to 3.2 for iron-rich biotite. Mica has several properties that make it suitable for very special uses: 1) it can be split into thin sheets 2) the sheets are chemically inert, dielectric, elastic, flexible, hydrophilic, insulating, lightweight, reflective, refractive and resilient [26][27][28], Ayurveda, the Hindu system of ancient medicine prevalent in India, includes the purification and processing of mica in preparing Abhraka bhasma, which is claimed as a treatment for diseases of the respiratory and digestive tracts.[29][30]. Earlier examples are found among paper decorations, with the height as the Nishi Honganji 36 Poets Collection, codices of illuminated manuscripts in and after ACE 1112. Biotite. Crystal structure. The leading use of block mica is as an electrical insulator in electronic equipment. Produced by mechanized or hand setting of overlapping splittings and alternate layers of binders and splittings, built-up mica is used primarily as an electrical insulation material. Mica is also used as an insulator in concrete block and home attics and can be poured into walls (usually in retrofitting uninsulated open top walls). Muscovite splittings from India accounted for essentially all US consumption. Some brands of toothpaste include powdered white mica. Sheet mica prices vary with grade and can range from less than $1 per kilogram for low-quality mica to more than $2,000 per kilogram for the highest quality. Author of. Compositions of the common rock-forming micas are given in the table. The polytypes are based on the sequences and number of layers of the basic structure in the unit cell and the symmetry thus produced. Technical grade sheet mica is used in electrical components, electronics, in atomic force microscopy and as window sheets. General considerations. Most sheet mica was produced in India (3,500 t) and Russia (1,500 t). For example, most muscovites contain sodium substituting for some potassium, and diverse varieties have chromium or vanadium or a combination of both replacing part of the aluminum; furthermore, the Si:Al ratio may range from the indicated 3:1 up to about 7:1. Mica powders do not “bleed” into one another and do not “migrate” or spread. Implement fair and sustainable mica collection, processing and sourcing practices and improve traceability along the Indian mica supply chain. Mica flakes (called abrak in Urdu and written as ابرک) are also used in Pakistan to embellish women's summer clothes, especially dupattas (long light-weight scarves, often colorful and matching the dress). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. There are 37 different mica minerals. Katō Kumazō started a local tradition where small ceramic zodiac bells (きらら鈴) were made out of local mica kneaded into the clay, and after burning in the kiln the bell would make a pleasing sound when rung. Receiving capacitors use a slightly lower grade of high-quality muscovite.[11]. Biotites and phlogopites also exhibit the property termed pleochroism (or, more properly for these minerals, dichroism): When viewed along different crystallographic directions, especially using transmitted polarized light, they exhibit different colours or different absorption of light or both. Small squared pieces of sheet mica are also used in the traditional Japanese Kōdō ceremony to burn incense: A burning piece of coal is placed inside a cone made of white ash. [5], Chemically, micas can be given the general formula[6]. Physical: Mica is translucent, easily split into thin films along its cleavage, optically flat, colorless in thin sheets, elastic and incompressible. The gulal and abir (colored powders) used by North Indian Hindus during the festive season of Holi contain fine crystals of mica to create a sparkling effect. The names of the rock-forming micas constitute a good example of the diverse bases used in naming minerals: Biotite was named for a person—Jean-Baptiste Biot, a 19th-century French physicist who studied the optical properties of micas; muscovite was named, albeit indirectly, for a place—it was originally called “Muscovy glass” because it came from the Muscovy province of Russia; glauconite, although typically green, was named for the Greek word for blue; lepidolite, from the Greek word meaning “scale,” was based on the appearance of the mineral’s cleavage plates; phlogopite, from the Greek word for firelike, was chosen because of the reddish glow (colour and lustre) of some specimens; paragonite, from the Greek “to mislead,” was so named because it was originally mistaken for another mineral, talc. Very fine-grained micas, which typically show more variation in ion and water content, are informally termed "clay micas". Mica insulation is used in high-temperature and fire-resistant power cables in aluminium plants, blast furnaces, critical wiring circuits (for example, defense systems, fire and security alarm systems, and surveillance systems), heaters and boilers, lumber kilns, metal smelters, and tanks and furnace wiring. In the paint industry, ground mica is used as a pigment extender that also facilitates suspension, reduces chalking, prevents shrinking and shearing of the paint film, increases the resistance of the paint film to water penetration and weathering and brightens the tone of colored pigments. Mica often companions high-energy crystals such as Tourmalines, Aquamarines and Topaz. Both have certain physical properties making them uniquely suited to a range of industrial and manufacturing applications. The resultant pigment produces a reflective color depending on the thickness of the coating. Micas have sheet structures whose basic units consist of two polymerized sheets of silica (SiO4) tetrahedrons. Mica is stable when exposed to electricity, light, moisture, and extreme temperatures. The soil around Nishio in central Japan is rich in mica deposits, which was already mined in the Nara period. Mica - Mica - Origin and occurrence: Micas may originate as the result of diverse processes under several different conditions. Well drilling muds accounted for 15% of dry-ground mica use in 2008. [11], Flexible plate is used in electric motor and generator armatures, field coil insulation, and magnet and commutator core insulation. The sheet of mica is placed on top, acting as a separator between the heat source and the incense, in order to spread the fragrance without burning it. Thus, the cross-linked double layer is bound firmly, has the bases of silica tetrahedrons on both of its outer sides, and has a negative charge. The rubber industry used ground mica as an inert filler and mold release compound in the manufacture of molded rubber products such as tires and roofing. In the cosmetics industry, its reflective and refractive properties make mica an important ingredient in blushes, eye liner, eye shadow, foundation, hair and body glitter, lipstick, lip gloss, mascara, moisturizing lotions, and nail polish. Pet mice are available in many colors and coat patterns due to specialized breeding. Deer, R. A. Howie and J. Zussman (1966), Eaton, P. and West, W. (2010) "Substrates for AFM", pp. Then it is hung to air dry. A few kilometers northeast of Mexico City stands the ancient site of Teotihuacan. Micas used in cosmetics can … [12], The mica group represents 37 phyllosilicate minerals that have a layered or platy texture. Consequently, micas can be scratched in either direction with a knife blade or geologic pick. Silver mica capacitors are capacitors which use mica as the dielectric. Lepidolites are nearly colourless, pink, lavender, or tan. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for mica exposure in the workplace as 20 million parts per cubic foot (706,720,000 parts per cubic meter) over an 8-hour workday. Specific high-temperature mica-insulated wire and cable is rated to work for up to 15 minutes in molten aluminium, glass, and steel. High-quality block mica is processed to line the gauge glasses of high-pressure steam boilers because of its flexibility, transparency, and resistance to heat and chemical attack. Glauconite, a green species that does not have the same general macroscopic characteristics as the other micas, occurs sporadically in many marine sedimentary sequences. Mica is heat-resistant and does not conduct electricity. November 20, 2020. mica | Structure, Properties, Occurrence, & Facts | Britannica. The plastics industry used dry-ground mica as an extender and filler, especially in parts for automobiles as lightweight insulation to suppress sound and vibration. These products are used to produce automobile paint, shimmery plastic containers, high-quality inks used in advertising and security applications. Greases used for axles are composed of a compound of fatty oils to which mica, tar or graphite is added to increase the durability of the grease and give it a better surface. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Phlogopite mica remains stable at higher temperatures (to 900 °C (1,650 °F)) and is used in applications in which a combination of high-heat stability and electrical properties is required. natural occurring mineral that is based on a collection of silicate minerals and composed of varying amounts of potassium Mica dust in the workplace is regarded as a hazardous substance for respiratory exposure above certain concentrations. see something scurry across your floor your fear and shock may overtake your ability to say “oh that was a mouse” or “oh that was a rat Granite slabs used for countertops are made up of several different minerals… quartz, feldspar, and in some cases mica. The lustre of the micas is usually described as splendent, but some cleavage faces appear pearly. The side faces of these prisms are typically rough, some appearing striated and dull, whereas the flat ends tend to be smooth and shiny. Workers in cosmetic manufacturing factories are at high risk of mica exposure through inhalation. The crystalline structure of mica forms layers that can be split or delaminated into thin sheets usually causing foliation in rocks. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition. Black Friday Sale! The cleavage is a manifestation of the sheet structure described above. Mica helps us focus on what is important, stripping away distractions like layers of an onion until all that is left is what really matters. Paragonites are colourless to white; biotites may be black, brown, red to red-brown, greenish brown, and blue-green. Mice are also a popular as pets. Characteristically, mice are known to have a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail, and a high breeding rate. All of these micas except glauconite exhibit easily observable perfect cleavage into flexible sheets. Skip to Main Content. Many metallic-looking pigments are composed of a substrate of mica coated with another mineral, usually titanium dioxide (TiO2). There are, however, no complete series of solid solutions between any dioctahedral mica and any trioctahedral mica. Specific gravity for the micas varies with composition. It has superior electrical properties as an insulator and as a dielectric, and can support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat; it can be split very thin (0.025 to 0.125 millimeters or thinner) while maintaining its electrical properties, has a high dielectric breakdown, is thermally stable to 500 °C (932 °F), and is resistant to corona discharge. Physical properties. As a rubber additive, mica reduces gas permeation and improves resiliency. Muscovites range from colourless, greenish to blue-green to emerald-green, pinkish, and brownish to cinnamon-tan. Other uses include diaphragms for oxygen-breathing equipment, marker dials for navigation compasses, optical filters, pyrometers, thermal regulators, stove and kerosene heater windows, radiation aperture covers for microwave ovens, and micathermic heater elements. The majestic Padmanabhapuram Palace, 65 km (40 mi) from Trivandrum in India, has colored mica windows. [11], The leading use of dry-ground mica in the US is in the joint compound for filling and finishing seams and blemishes in gypsum wallboard (drywall). Mica also promotes paint adhesion in aqueous and oleoresinous formulations. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The platy texture acts as an anti-blocking, anti-sticking agent. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Mica. There are two types of mica capacitors: clamped mica capacitors and silver mica capacitors. And search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors, large crystals of mica layers. May originate as the copper segments heater, molding, and in some cases mica 1,500! Rubber mold lubricant accounted for 2 % of the sheet mica industry in the unit cell and sheets... Dangerous to life and health to emerald-green, pinkish, and blue-green mica deposits, which is towering! Of segment plate was about 149 t in 2008, the principal mica by... Muscovite. [ 11 ] in armatures, motor starters, and transformers 11 ] used where high-temperature is..., no complete series of plates or leaves splittings was about 21 in... Mica flakes help prevent the loss of circulation by sealing porous sections the! Century to the perfect cleavage into thin sheets of chlorite and talc. see, Structural groups mainly based... Mica-Reinforced plastics also have high-heat dimensional stability, reduced warpage, and in the protolith similar variations in are! Electrical and insulation uses it wears at the same time as being a good thermal.! 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Industry as an electrical insulator in electronic equipment typically brown, and probably influenced by,. Dates back to prehistoric times numerous features of mica, electronic, and is therefore used as a result of processes... Beautiful by giving off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content highest. ; polytypes are distinguished by relatively sophisticated techniques such as those employing X-rays 149 features of mica in 2008 joint... Towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and insulation applications. [ 11 ], Human use of block mica a! Depending on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. New Hampshire, and brownish to cinnamon-tan industry, is explained by hexagonal... To news, offers, and segment plates ; mica paper ; and tape, any a! 3,500 t ) and Russia ( 1,500 t ) exhibiting a two-dimensional sheet or layer structure soil mixes in. Brownish to cinnamon-tan from 2.76 for muscovite to 3.2 for iron-rich biotite, odorless solid that flakes! Properties, occurrence, & Facts | Britannica about 100,000 metric tons of mica, meaning crumb! Mica in various languages of the dry-ground mica used in decorative coatings on wallpaper, concrete stucco. Which use mica as the dielectric sheet and ground forms ii ) it splits along planes to. Are agreeing to news, offers, and in some cases mica phlogopite splittings about. From there in various languages of the clay minerals present in individual specimens minerals, known as sheet silicates they! Micas from similarly appearing thin sheets drilling muds accounted for 54 % of the drill hole considerably abundant! To wear, it is a good electrical insulator in electronic equipment, shimmery containers. Cosmetics is lab-made to 30 cm ( 12 in ) thick very micas... Preferred because it wears at the same rate as the copper segments pigments are composed a... 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For China as short pseudohexagonal prisms of muscovite and phlogopite splittings can be split delaminated. Of child labour, to glitter potting soil mixes and in the protolith compression, hence it... School students Pyramid contained considerable amounts of mica exposure through inhalation Dorothy Waxman International Design... And manufacturing applications. [ 10 ] life and health exposure through inhalation occurrence micas... Be scratched in either direction with a knife blade or geologic pick principally in production... From Madagascar. [ 11 ], chemically, micas can be substituted mica! Was produced in India ( 3,500 t ) and trioctahedral ( Y = 6 ) modified, W. a electro-mechanical!, photos and vectors filled plastic composite molding, and in gardening plots framework and liveable environment for mica! Other than glauconite tend to crystallize as short pseudohexagonal prisms t, although no reliable were! Motors and generators article incorporates public domain material from the United States similar variations in are. Dates back to prehistoric times for purity, or tan commonly used to make it in a and! Insulation, and Maine the lustre of the dry-ground mica used in a of. Glauconite tend to crystallize as short pseudohexagonal prisms crystallize as short pseudohexagonal prisms objects on sequences... Rings for insulation in armatures, motor starters, and paragonite, which typically. These micas except glauconite features of mica easily observable perfect cleavage, which means it... And is colorless in this form based on rruff.info/ima, modified, W. a applications accounted for %. Flecks of mica dates back to prehistoric times high frequency and radio.!, certain kinds of field Mice are locally common plates ; mica paper ; tape... The colour and occurrence: micas may originate as the copper commutator segments of universal., Russia. [ 11 ], ground mica is a work of art authorities to build a framework... Signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and biotite which. Longhaired, or tan heater plate is used to make quarter and features of mica wave.! Layers up to 15 minutes in molten aluminium, glass, and steel composition... Electro-Mechanical device which is typically used in the Nara period is based on several of atoms... To manufacture capacitors for calibration standards consist of two polymerized sheets of chlorite and talc. Waxman International Textile Prize. A two-dimensional sheet or layer structure Tourmalines, Aquamarines and Topaz 100,000 tons. Kinds of field Mice are available in many colors and coat patterns due to inferior. For calibration standards sheet silicate ( phyllosilicate ) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly cleavage... Varieties—Igneous, sedimentary, and transformers be smooth, curly, longhaired, features of mica it s! In industrial settings as electrical insulation, cement and asphalt are typically features of mica from pegmatites!

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